Objective of the NAP

The agreed objectives of the NAP process are:
(a) Reduce vulnerability to the climate change impacts by building adaptive capacity and resilience.
(b) Facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new and existing policies, and programs and activities, in particular, development planning processes and strategies, within all relevant sectors and at different levels, as appropriate.
(Source: UNFCCC, Decision 5/CP.17, paragraph 1, 2011)

Adaptation planning under the UNFCCC

  • A decade ago, the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC established the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) in 2011 to facilitate effective adaptation planning in the LDCs and other developing countries.
  • The Paris Agreement decided that all parties should communicate their priorities, plans, actions, and requirements for any support through adaptation communications.
  • The institutional arrangements for developing and implementing NAPs within a country vary and will be driven by national circumstances and priorities. Thus, the structure and form of the NAPs produced under the UNFCCC NAP process will vary by country.

NAPs under the Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement decided to address both mitigation and adaptation, as climate change impacts are bound to continue for extended periods, even if countries immediately reduce their GHG emissions to zero; furthermore, the damages caused by climate change are expected to worsen in the future.

You can find information on the new elements and dimensions in the area of adaptation under the Paris Agreement (Article 7) in the UNFCCC website.

Paris Agreement and nationally determined contributions (NDCs)

  • In the Paris Conference, developed and developing countries prepared intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), which outline the national efforts to reduce emissions and increase the resilience of the countries. Consequently, various efforts were communicated, including absolute and relative quantified national targets, sectoral targets, and programs.
  • The novel concept of INDCs was formalized under the Paris Agreement as nationally determined contributions (NDCs). Under this program, parties are requested to prepare and communicate successive NDCs every five years.
  • The overall mitigation purpose and long-term temperature goals are established in Article 2 of the Paris Agreement and state that the increase in the global average temperature should be limited to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and efforts should be undertaken to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. Moreover, under the Paris Agreement, each party is required to propose successive and progressively more ambitious NDCs, representing its highest possible mitigation ambition.
    (Source: UNFCCC)
  • Conceptual linkages between NAPs and NDCs

    (Source: UNFCCC, National Adaptation Plans 2020)

    National Adaptation Plans

    The NAP is a key documentation for identifying the medium- and long-term national adaptation needs, relevant policy measures, steps, and challenges based on an understanding of the impacts and risks of climate change in each country. It is also a key component for establishing long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods, and ecosystems.
    The UNFCCC COP established the NAP process at COP16 in 2010 to enable the parties to formulate and implement their NAPs. The NAP Guidelines were agreed upon at COP17 (Durban, South Africa, 2011). The Paris Agreement was adopted at COP21 (Paris, 2015) and it formally entered into force in November 2016. It promotes countries to submit information on the adverse effects of and adaptation to climate change.

    Addressing domestic needs, parties are now encouraged to scale up the development and implementation of their NAPs to advance adaptation actions and resilience-building.

    Formulation of NAPs

    The process of formulating and implementing NAPs includes the following four major elements, as contained in the initial guidelines adopted by the COP.

    Source: Least Developed Countries Expert Group. 2012. National Adaptation Plans. Technical guidelines for the national adaptation plan process. Bonn: UNFCCC secretariat. Bonn, Germany. December 2012.

    As indicated in the initial guidelines adopted at COP 17, the technical guidelines are framed around the four elements of the NAP process: laying the groundwork and addressing gaps; preparatory elements; implementation strategies; and reporting, monitoring, and reviewing. Technical guidelines do not follow a definite prescription, and countries can decide on specific steps for their national processes. They are developed to enhance the coherence of adaptation and development planning within countries, rather than duplicating efforts that are already undertaken or are underway. Moreover, they are intended to facilitate country-owned, country-driven actions that seek to harness and build upon national-level capacity, with support from various partners, as appropriate. The guidelines are designed to allow countries to monitor and review them regularly and update their NAPs iteratively.

    Status of the NAP formulation

    Status of the formulation and implementation of NAPs

    • Paris Agreement (as of mid-October)
    • Submitted NDC
      • 191
        192 Parties have submitted their first NDCs.
        13 Parties have submitted their second NDCs.
        * There are currently 191 Parties to the Paris Agreement. Eritrea has submitted its first NDC, but has not yet become a Party to the Paris Agreement.
        ▶ NDC Registry (UNFCCC)
    • Submitted NAP
      • 126/154
        At least 126 of the 154 developing countries had undertaken activities related to the process to formulate and implement NAPs
        (As of end of August 2021)
      • 7 LDCs and 17 other developing countries had completed and submitted their NAPs on NAP Central
        (As of end of August 2021)
        ▶ NAP Central (UNFCCC)

    Monitoring the formulation progress of NAPs

    United Nation agencies and related organizations are following the progress of NAP formulation and implementation by each party. The LDCs Expert Group (LEG), established in 2001 as one of the primary pillars under the UNFCCC to support the LDCs to address the adverse impacts of climate change, is mandated to provide technical guidance and support to formulate and implement NAPs among its various other activities. The LEG produces an annual progress report on the process of formulation and implementation of NAPs, thus, serving as an official documentation of progress. Additionally, it assists the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) of the UNFCCC actions in assessing the NAP progress.

    The COP conducted progress assessments in 2015 and 2018. However, the available information is insufficient to assess whether the development of the NAPs has reduced vulnerability, thus, highlighting the need to address these gaps. The next assessment by the COP has been planned to be undertaken no later than 2025 (Decision 8/CP.24, paragraph 19).

    List of NAPs and relevant contributions by the selected UNFCCC Parties

    Country NDCHELP NAPHELP NAPAHELP TNAHELP
    Flag:AfghanistanAfghanistan ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF AFGHANISTAN Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment for Global Environmental Management (NCSA) and National Adaptation Programme of Action for Climate Change (NAPA) Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Technology Needs Assessment for Climate Change Adaptation
    Flag:AustraliaAustralia Australia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution to a new Climate Change Agreement Australian Government National Climate Resilience and Adaptation Strategy<Others>
    Flag:BangladeshBangladesh Bangladesh’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) BANGLADESH CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN 2009<Others> National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)
    Flag:BhutanBhutan Kingdom of Bhutan Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Bhutan National Adaptation Programme of Action
    Flag:CambodiaCambodia Cambodia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution ROYAL GOVERNMENT OF CAMBODIA NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMME OF ACTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE (NAPA) http://unfccc.int/ttclear/misc_/StaticFiles/gnwoerk_static/TNR_CRE/e9067c6e3b97459989b2196f12155ad5/add86d65dbba444ba28fee2a3882b21b.pdf
    Flag:ChinaChina China's intended nationally determined contribution: Enhanced Actions on Climate Change
    Flag:CookIslandsCook Islands Cook Islands Second Joint National Action Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2016-2020 <Others>
    Flag:Democratic People's Republic of KoreaDemocratic People's Republic of Korea INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS DPR Korea’s Second National Communication on Climate Change<Others>
    Flag:FijiFiji Fiji’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Republic of Fiji National Adaptation Plan<UNFCCC> Fiji TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT REPORT ADAPTATION
    Flag:IndiaIndia INDIA’S INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION: WORKING TOWARDS CLIMATE JUSTICE National Action Plan on Climate Change, Government of India<Others>
    Flag:IndonesiaIndonesia FIRST NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
    Flag:JapanJapan Submission of Japan’s Nationally Determined Contribution(NDC) National Plan for Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change<Others>
    Flag:Lao People's Democratic RepublicLao People's Democratic Republic Intended Nationally Determined Contribution LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC'S STRATEGY ON CLIMATE CHANGE-2010(LAO)<Others> National Adaptation Programme of Action to Climate Change http://unfccc.int/ttclear/misc_/StaticFiles/gnwoerk_static/TNR_CRE/e9067c6e3b97459989b2196f12155ad5/14008ecce30a4ad0b980ab9f6a9c9c6b.pdf
    Flag:MalaysiaMalaysia INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA MALAYSIA Second National Communication to the UNFCCC<Others>
    Flag:MicronesiaMicronesia Federated States of Micronesia Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change<Others>
    Flag:MongoliaMongolia Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) Submission by Mongolia to the Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) http://unfccc.int/ttclear/misc_/StaticFiles/gnwoerk_static/TNR_CRE/e9067c6e3b97459989b2196f12155ad5/a04477f73ad14945b1ba32b536e3901d.pdf
    Flag:MyanmarMyanmar Myanmar's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution - INDC Myanmar Climate Change Strategy(2018-2030)<Others> Myanmar' s National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPA) to Climate Change The Republic of The Union of Myanmar TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT REPORTForAdaptation
    Flag:Republic of NauruRepublic of Nauru REPUBLIC OF NAURU Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (iNDC) Under the United Nations Convention on Climate Change NAURU TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT FOR CLIMATE CHANGEADAPTATION AND MITIGATION
    Flag:NepalNepal Government of Nepal NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS Synthesis of the Stocktaking Report for the National Adaptation Plan Formulation Process in Nepal<Others> National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change
    Flag:New ZealandNew Zealand Developing a National Climate Change Adaptation Plan(NAP) for New Zealand<Others>
    Flag:NiueNiue NIUE Intended Nationally Determined Contributions Niue National Strategic Plan(2016-2026)
    Flag:PakistanPakistan PAKISTAN’S INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION (PAK-INDC)
    Flag:Republic of PalauRepublic of Palau Republic of Palau Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Palau Climate Change Policy For Climate and Disaster Resilient Low Emissions Development 2015<Others>
    Flag:Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea PAPUA NEW GUINEA Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Papua New GuineaSecond National Communication To the Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change<Others>
    Flag:PakistanPhilippines REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Intended Nationally Determined Contributions http://unfccc.int/ttclear/misc_/StaticFiles/gnwoerk_static/TNR_CRE/e9067c6e3b97459989b2196f12155ad5/690c4a212e6e429cb89c255934a364fd.pdf
    Flag:Republic of KiribatiRepublic of Kiribati KIRIBATI JOINT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN for climate change and disaster risk management (2019-2028)<UNFCCC> National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA)
    Flag:Republic of KoreaRepublic of Korea Submission by the Republic of Korea Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Second National Climate Change Adaptation Measures (2016-2020) (in Korean)
    Flag:Republic of MaldivesRepublic of Maldives MALDIVES’ INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION (INDC) National Adaptation Programme of Action(NAPA)
    Flag:Republic of the
    Marshall Islands
    Republic of the Marshall Islands Joint National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaption and Disaster Risk Management, 2014-2018<Others>
    Flag:SamoaSamoa Samoa’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution SAMOAíS SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE<Others> NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMME OF ACTION
    Flag:SingaporeSingapore SINGAPORE’S UPDATE OF ITS FIRST NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION (NDC) AND ACCOMPANYING INFORMATION National Climate Change Strategy 2012<Others>
    Flag:Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands Solomon Islands Government INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION Solomon Islands Second National Communication<Others> SOLOMON ISLANDS National Adaptation Programmes of Action
    Flag:Timor-LesteTimor-Leste INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (INDC) TIMOR-LESTE TIMOR LESTE’S INITIAL NATIONAL COMMUNICATION<Others> National Adaptation Programme of Action(NAPA) on climate change
    Flag:Sri LankaSri Lanka Nationally Determined Contributions Sri Lanka National Adaptation Plan For Climate Change Impacts in Sri Lanka(2016-2025)<UNFCCC>
    Flag:ThailandThailand Thailand’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) http://unfccc.int/ttclear/misc_/StaticFiles/gnwoerk_static/TNR_CRE/e9067c6e3b97459989b2196f12155ad5/f17b53944d55453fafaee6b5109a72d2.pdf
    Flag:Kingdom of TongaKingdom of Tonga KINGDOM OF TONGA INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS JOINT NATIONAL ACTION PLAN 2 ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT 2018-2028<Others>
    Flag:TuvaluTuvalu Government of Tuvalu Intended Nationally Determined Contributions Tuvalu’s National Adaptation Programme of Action
    Flag:Republic of VanuatuRepublic of Vanuatu REPUBLIC OF VANUATU INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION (INDC) National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Land-Based Resources(2012-2022)<Others> National Adaptation Programme for Action (NAPA)
    Flag:Viet NamViet Nam Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Viet Nam The third NATIONALCOMMUNICATIONOF VIETNAM<Others>
    NDCsNationally Determined Contributions
    In the Paris Agreement signed in 2015, 196 Parties (countries) agreed to set long-term goals to increase their ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience. The NDCs are a core element of this Agreement and are critical for the achievement of these long-term goals. Specifically, they embody the post-2020 climate actions or efforts made by each country to adapt to the impacts of climate change. The Paris Agreement (in Article 4, paragraph 2) requires each Party to outline and communicate these efforts.
    The Paris Agreement
    https://unfccc.int/files/meetings/paris_nov_2015/application/pdf/paris_agreement_english_.pdf
    NAPANational Adaptation Programmes of Action
    The least developed countries (LDC) work program, established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2001, include the national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs) for supporting LDCs in addressing the challenges posed by climate change, given their particular vulnerability. NAPAs are action-oriented, country-driven, flexible, and based on national circumstances. Their document mainly contains a list of ranked priority adaptation activities and projects as well as short profiles of each activity, designed to facilitate the development of project proposals for implementation of the NAPA. Priority sectors (or areas) addressed in the NAPAs are agriculture and food security, water resources, coastal zones, and early warning and disaster management. Once a NAPA has been submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat, the LDC Party is eligible to access funding from the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), managed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), for the implementation of the NAPA. The GEF agency works closely with the country during each successive step of the LDCF cycle, and ultimately supports the country in implementing the project.
    NAPsNational Adaptation Plans
    The national adaptation plan (NAP) process was established under the Cancun Adaptation Framework. It enables Parties to formulate and implement NAPs as a means of identifying medium- and long-term adaptation needs, and developing and implementing strategies and programs to address those needs. It is a continuous, progressive, and iterative process, which follows a country-driven, gender-sensitive, participatory, and fully transparent approach.
    The Cancun Adaptation Framework
    https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.pdf
    <UNFCCC> NAPs from developing countries submitted through UNFCCC(NAP Central).
    <Others> Other relevant outputs and outcomes related to the process to formulate and implement NAPs.
    TNATechnology Needs Assessment
    The TNAs are a long-standing process under the UNFCCC. Since 2001, more than 80 developing countries have undertaken them to assess their technological needs and address climate change. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) secretariat identifies developing countries' NDCs and TNAs as important reference points for GCF programming. While the TNA process has multiple aims, its principle objective is to support developing countries to enhance the implementation of climate technology projects and programs. Almost all Parties conducted this process with the help of a national ministry. Most technologies for adaptation in the agricultural sector were related to crop management. Specifically, the biotechnologies, involving the development of newer drought-resistant, salient-tolerant, and short-maturing varieties, were allocated the highest priority.

    Table of target sectors indicated in national adaptation plan

    This table summarises the key sectors indicated in the adaptation plans of countries in the Asia-Pacific area.

    Agriculture Food Marine and/or Coastal zones Energy Forestry Health Infrastructure Water Land use Fisheries Tourism Waste and Sanitation Biodiversity Industry
    Cambojia
    Fiji
    India
    Indonesia
    Lao
    Malaysia
    Thailand
    Samoa
    Micornesia
    Nauru
    Myanmer
    Niue
    Singapore
    Solomon Island
    Tonga
    Tuvalu
    Vanuatu
    Vietnam